All You Need to Know About Hong Kong Protests (2019)

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The five demands of the protest…

  1. Full withdrawal of the extradition bill 徹底撤回送中修例
  2. An independent commission of inquiry into alleged police brutality 成立獨立調查委員會 追究警隊濫暴
  3. Retracting the classification of protesters as “rioters” 取消暴動定性
  4. Amnesty for arrested protesters 撤銷對今為所有反送中抗爭者控罪
  5. Dual universal suffrage, meaning for both the Legislative Council and the Chief Executive 以行政命令解散立法會 立即實行雙真普選

Liberate Hong Kong; Revolution of our times
“光復香港,時代革命”

First conceived as a localist election slogan of pro-independence activist Edward Leung Tin-kei in 2016, now it has become the most commonly heard chant in the city amid anti-government protests.

Edward Leung, the former spokesman of Hong Kong Indigenous, a radical, localist and nativist political group. It opposes the increased influence of mainland China and the Beijing government’s involvement in Hong Kong.

The anthem “Glory to Hong Kong”
“願榮光歸香港”

Composed and authored by a local musician under the pseudonym “Thomas dgx yhl”, with the contribution of a group of anonymous Hong Kong netizens. The song went viral within a few days across various social media, with an English version produced soon afterwards. It has been adopted as the anthem of the movement.

History of Hong Kong-China conflict…

In 1984, the terms agreed between British and China governments were set out in the Sino-British Joint Declaration and enshrined in the semi-constitutional Basic Law of Hong Kong, included a series of guarantees for the maintenance of Hong Kong’s differing economic, political and legal systems after the handover on July 1, 1997, and the further development of Hong Kong’s political system with a goal of democratic government under the “one country, two systems” approach.

Hong Kong has more international cultural values from its past as a British colony and international city. Hong Kong-mainland conflict is mainly attributed to the cultural differences. The conflict associates to issues regarding the allocation of resources between mainlanders and Hong Kong people in different sectors, such as healthcare and education.

Tension has arisen especially in the early 2010s, controversial policies have been seized on as focal points of discontent. Some representatives of the central government have adopted increasingly strong rhetoric perceived to be attacking Hong Kong’s political and legal systems.

Background – Umbrella Movement 2014

The Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress issued a decision regarding proposed reforms to the Hong Kong electoral system. The decision was widely seen to be highly restrictive, and tantamount to the Chinese Communist Party’s pre-screening of the candidates for the Chief Executive of Hong Kong.

Protesters blocked both east–west arterial routes in northern Hong Kong Island. Police tactics – including the use of tear gas – and triad attacks on protesters led more citizens to join the protests. Key areas in Hong Kong were occupied and remained closed to traffic for 77 days.

The Hong Kong government’s use of the police and courts to resolve political issues led to accusations that these institutions had been turned into political tools, thereby compromising the police and judicial system in the territory and eroding the rule of law in favor of “rule by law”.

The protests ended without any political concessions from the government.

Anti-ELAB Movement 2019

The protests which began with the aim of withdrawing the Fugitive Offenders amendment bill proposed by the Hong Kong government. Concerns were raised that the bill would place Hong Kong citizens and visitors under mainland Chinese jurisdiction, undermining the autonomy of the region and civil liberties.

Demonstrations against the bill began in March and turned into consecutive mass movements in June, marked a sharp escalation in violence. Riot police deployed tear gas and rubber bullets against demonstrators, but protesters successfully stalled the passage of the bill.

Protesters felt that peaceful methods were not effective and resorted to using more radical methods to express their view, they are driven by a sense of desperation rather than hope, and that the aims of the protests have evolved from withdrawing the bill to fighting for greater freedom and liberties. In this case, the right to elect Hong Kong leaders through general elections under universal suffrage with no curtailment from the central government of China became the new focal point for the pro-democracy camp. As the protests progressed, the protesters laid out five key demands in July.

Significant events: JUN~JUL 2019

Significant Events: AUG 2019

International Authorities Reports

Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International are the only two international human rights organizations operating in most situations of severe oppression or abuse worldwide.

On Jun 28, 2019, Amnesty International Hong Kong, Hong Kong Human Rights Monitor, Human Rights Watch together with 30+ NGO sent an open letter to the Chief Executive Carrie Lam to call on the Hong Kong government to establish an Independent Commission of Inquiry to conduct an independent, impartial, effective and prompt investigation into the use of force on June 12, 2019.
https://www.amnesty.org.hk/en/open-letter-to-the-chief-executive-calling-for-an-independent-commission-of-inquiry/

On Sep 20, 2019, a new Amnesty International field investigation has documented an alarming pattern of the Hong Kong Police Force deploying reckless and indiscriminate tactics, including while arresting people at protests, as well as exclusive evidence of torture and other ill-treatment in detention.
https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2019/09/hong-kong-arbitrary-arrests-brutal-beatings-and-torture-in-police-detention-revealed/

Moody’s and Fitch Group are two of the Big Three global credit rating agencies in the world.

On Sep 6, 2019 Fitch Ratings downgraded the city’s rating a notch from AA+ to AA and the city’s outlook from stable to negative as it raised doubts about its governance under the “one country, two systems” principle amid continuing protests, an assessment stoutly rejected by city leader Carrie Lam Cheng Yuet-ngor.
https://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/hong-kong-economy/article/3026109/beleaguered-hong-kong-hit-double-whammy-fitch

On Sep 16, 2019, Moody’s Investor Service on Monday downgraded the outlook for Hong Kong’s sovereign rating from stable to negative against a backdrop of persistent political stalemate between protesters and the government, but kept the city’s rating unchanged. The credit agency said its downgrade signalled rising concern about Hong Kong losing its current equilibrium with mainland China in terms of economic proximity and legal and regulatory distance. This is despite the government accommodating one of protesters’ five demands.
https://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/politics/article/3027527/moodys-downgrades-outlook-hong-kong-amid-ongoing-protest

International Reactions (Countries)

United States – “Hong Kong Human Rights and Democracy Act of 2019”
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hong_Kong_Human_Rights_and_Democracy_Act

According to the act, Beijing has consistently undermined the ‘one country, two systems’ principle and infringed on the democratic freedoms the residents of Hong Kong are supposed to be guaranteed.

The act was proposed, if become law, will be “to renew the historical commitment of the States to uphold freedom and democracy in Hong Kong at a time when its autonomy is increasingly under assault.” It includes the support for the importance of Hong Kong remaining sufficiently autonomous from China to justify different treatment under U.S. law, and requires the President to identify persons responsible for actions suppressing basic freedoms, and to freeze their U.S.-based assets and deny them entry into the U.S.

Germany – New parliamentary scheme

On Sep 13, 2019, A Hong Kong Watch trustee led Student Union leaders Sunny Cheung, Joey Siu and Kex Leung from Hong Kong Higher Education International Affairs Delegation (HKIAD), along with the first political refugee from Hong Kong Ray Wong, to meet with Eckhard Gnodtke MP (CDU) and Dr Danyal Bayaz MP (The Greens) of the Finance Committee to finalise details of a parliamentary scheme. It will be announced soon, after going through a final check of regulation and procedures of the Bundestag.
https://www.hongkongwatch.org/all-posts/2019/9/16/hong-kong-watch-trustee-and-hong-kong-student-leaders-met-with-german-mps-and-considered-parliamentary-actions

Rise of the Nazis

“Chinazi” has become an increasingly popular insult for many protesters to aim at the regime in Beijing, which they accuse of abusing human rights.
https://theworldnews.net/us-news/water-cannon-and-petrol-bombs-on-hong-kong-s-13th-straight-weekend-of-unrest

The first worldwide “Anti-Chinazi/ Totalitarianism” rallies take place on Sep 28~29, 2019. Aiming to be the biggest global march in history, they target at raising the alarm of the threat from China and standing with the Hong Kong frontline.

Totalitarianism
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Totalitarianism

A political concept of a mode of government that prohibits opposition parties, restricts individual opposition to the state and its claims, and exercises an extremely high degree of control over public and private life. It is regarded as the most extreme and complete form of authoritarianism. Political power in totalitarian states has often been held by rule by one leader which employ all-encompassing propaganda campaigns broadcast by state-controlled mass media.

People’s democratic dictatorship
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/People%27s_democratic_dictatorship

The Communist Party of China and state represent and act on behalf of the people, but in the preservation of the dictatorship of the proletariat, possess and may use powers against reactionary forces, dictatorial control by the party is necessary to prevent the government from collapsing into a liberal democracy.

Chinazi – Tactics and Methods

Worldwide:

Chinese Nationalism
https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-49354017
Violation of Treaty
https://www.reuters.com/article/us-hongkong-anniversary-china/china-says-sino-british-joint-declaration-on-hong-kong-no-longer-has-meaning-idUSKBN19L1J1
Controlling Media & Conversations
https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2019/09/18/world/asia/hk-twitter.html
Economic Suppression
https://time.com/5668266/hong-kong-business-china-protests-economy-workforce-politics/
Bribery & Corruption
https://www.bbc.com/news/business-42062172

Domestic:

Dictatorship
https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-43361276
Police State
https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-23340096
Rule by Law
https://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-policy-law/chinas-top-judge-warns-courts-on-judicial-independence-idUSKBN14Z07B
Surveillance State
https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-49608459
Social Credit System
https://time.com/collection/davos-2019/5502592/china-social-credit-score/
Massacre
https://time.com/5600363/china-tiananmen-30-years-later/
Extreme Patriotism Education
https://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-education/chinas-xi-calls-for-universities-allegiance-to-the-communist-party-idUSKBN13Y0B5
Ethnic Cleansing
https://time.com/5678136/human-rights-watch-children-xinjiang/
Cult of Personality
https://www.bbc.com/news/blogs-china-blog-45728131
Triad Collusion
https://time.com/5631502/hong-kong-protests-triads-yuen-long/
No Freedom of Religion
https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-46588650

Foreign:

Currency Manipulation
https://www.bbc.com/news/business-45251091
Territory Invasions
https://time.com/4844804/china-india-border-sikkim-donglang/
https://time.com/5370092/south-china-sea-nuclear-power/
Economic Invasions – Belt & Road Trap
https://www.bbc.com/news/business-48047877
Stealing Trade Secrets & Technology
https://www.reuters.com/article/us-huawei-tech-usa-verdict/huawei-technologies-loses-trade-secrets-case-against-u-s-chip-designer-idUSKCN1TR2YH
Theft of Intellectual Property
https://time.com/5633390/fbi-christopher-wray-china-counterintelligence/

Fight for Freedom; Stand with Hong Kong

United States
https://i.ibb.co/MS1d9PS/22891261-EB4-F-4738-A56-E-9-AC9-DF48539-F.jpg
Canada
https://i.ibb.co/ngDC2nD/7-CDB3-BD0-D72-C-4-E2-B-8012-CB5858-DFEF58.jpg
United Kindom
https://i.ibb.co/x3P4HZn/EAF8-FF31-08-EB-4-CD0-92-F5-2-A26-F49-A6728.jpg
European Countries
https://i.ibb.co/X2V6X6S/DB2-C0684-E82-D-4172-9513-09-A44-DECC8-F6.jpg
Australia
https://i.ibb.co/kGNy39C/21-EAB999-51-D2-42-C5-ADF4-4011-AC4437-B2.jpg
New Zealand
https://i.ibb.co/qgk2L5s/7-D3224-EA-B855-4-ACC-831-B-A51035-B0-C528.jpg
Switzerland and Japan
https://i.ibb.co/sWVRYyf/474-A9491-C94-F-49-A3-BCE3-571-D86717090.jpg
China
https://i.ibb.co/Xbk4GzQ/54-F1-B473-35-FF-46-A6-B91-E-3-E966-A400423.jpg


Traveling to Hong Kong…

Unfortunately, the situation has deteriorated and it is now NOT recommended that you visit Hong Kong unless you are very familiar with the city or are going to stay within the hotel/ resort area and not venture out. Protests are widespread and spontaneous. There are frequent blockages on major highways and tunnels. Public transportation is frequently disrupted or service suspended. Due to the repeated tear gas use, some areas of the city are considered polluted with Dioxin or various toxins from the tear gas and can cause irritancy and/or discomfort in the young, the elderly, and those with respiratory or skin sensitivities.

Avoid interactions with the police. You can seek help from black-shirted protesters, first aiders or the press. Download the MTR app ( Be aware of possible disclosure of your location to the authorities [under 2[iii] and 3[a]])/ twitter alternative to check for station closures. Citymapper is helpful with alternative transportation options. Keep contact info of your consulate/ embassy in your wallet in case of an emergency.

Enjoy your stay and stay safe.

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